, 4827 (1971) It shows a very low extinction coefficient in the
UV spectrum, A&~H 275 nm (e 1600), in spite of the conjugation present,
indicating that the alicyclic ring is out of plane from the aromatic ring Therefore various approaches to the synthesis
of 7-hydroxy-b higher. The police simply "being
around" accounts for much of the differential in crime rates. A crime undetected is, from
an official point of view, a crime uncommitted. In addition, many criminologists think that
having been exposed to prison gives a person criminal tendencies.36 Prisons are the
most effective spawning grounds of criminals known to man. Anyone who has served
some time in prison is more likely to come out a potential professional criminal than he is
to be "rehabilitated."
In addition, Gardikas assumes that the crimes for which the 117 offenders were arrested
were the result of having been involved with hashish, since they followed the hashish
arrest. This is a good example of the post hoc fallacy. We have no idea why these 420
offenses were committed, let alone can we be sure that they were caused by the hashish.
Nor do we know that the arrested individuals were not involved in a life of crime before
the hashish arrest. Merely because they had not been arrested until then is no indication
that they did not commit nonhashish crimes. They might very well have been criminals all
along and picked up hashish along the way, and been merely unfortunate enough to get
arrested first for the hashish.
All we really know from the Gardikas study is that arrested hashish smokers are
involved in a good deal of crime. We have no idea whether hashish "causes" the
violations, or was associated with them in any way. We know nothing about whether the
nonarrested smoker is also as criminal, or whether he ever commits crimes. We do not
know how representative the sample even is of arrested users, let alone users in general.
As a demonstration of the criminogenic effect of cannabis, this study is of extremely
dubious value at best.
Our Two Hundred Interviews
(21 of 28)4/15/2004 1:08:08 AM
The Marijuana Smokers - Chapter 9
In our interview study, we asked the respondents to enumerate any and all arrests which
they might have experienced. It is almost impossible to make a systematic, rigorous, and
meaningful comparison with the general population with the aim of determining whether
marijuana users are "more criminal" or "less criminal" than nonusers. Our sample is not
representative. (But no sample of lawbreakers ever is a true cross-section.) It is a different
average age than the American population—a median of twenty-two as opposed to twentyseven,
with almost no very young or very old. It is entirely urban—nearly all reside in
New York City. It is more middle-class than the nation as a whole. We know that all of
the sample, to be included in the study, have engaged in criminal behavior—marijuana
use, possession, and sale—and on that basis alone, be expected to be arrested more times
than the average member of American society. We might isolate out at least a dozen such
factors which make the two "populations" incomparable. Some of these factors would
tend to inflate our sample's lawbreaking tendencies, while Thus a number of synthetic procedures that work satisfactorily
in the bo6 series prove to be inadequate in the bol series 9), was developed by
Jen et a1 , 4827 (1971)
(- )-b , 74, 5436 (1952); R I grew it, or at least something called Early Girl, that I got from Holland in the late '80s. It was pretty average
all the way around in my opinion. About average yield, high, and everything else. I got some California Orange
at the same time and liked it a little better. That was a while back, though. They might have improved it in
recent years.” – Been There , 89, 4552 (1967); 94,
The natural material has a 3,4-trans ring junction with a double bond at the t:, water and other minerals from the soil to help
it grow. The soil also goes through dry periods when you do not water
your plant or when the plant has absorbed most of the water. During
these dry periods air is allowed to creep in between the soil particles,
allowing the roots to breathe.
There are 3 main factors to look at when buying soil. (1) pH,
(2) Nutrients and (3) Structure.
pH is a way of measuring how much acid and alkaline is in
the soil. The pH scale runs from 1 - 14. 7 is neutral, 0 is very acidic
and 14 is very alkaline. Cannabis plants in soil like a pH of 7. When
choosing your soil you should be looking for a pH of 7. It should tell
you this on the bag. Going above or below this mark can cause your
plant problems during growth. Small pH meters (Figure 5.18) can be
bought in most gardening shops and can be used to measure the
overall pH of your soil.
Figure 5.18 - This is a picture of two cheap pH meters that can be
purchased from most grow shops.
The three major nutrients that are found in soil are Nitrogen,
Phosphorous and Potassium or NPK for short. NPK can come in two
forms - with the soil or as a stand-alone fertilizer (usually in a bottle).
When you look at the bag you will see that the % of each part is stated.
Such as 20:20:20. This means 20% N, 20% P, 20% K. The remaining
40% is just other elements that make-up the soil. In liquid it would
usually be water. This ratio can change between different types of
nutrient and soil brands so we need to understand what Cannabis likes.
Cannabis plants like good levels of N and a normal level of P
and K during vegetative growth. You need to pick a bag that has all
three, not just 10:20:0. When looking at chemical fertilizers you need
a mixture that has the first number higher or equal to the rest. 12-12-
12 is fine, 20-20-20 is fine, 12-6-6 is fine and 18-4-5 is fine. The 12-
12-12 and 20-20-20 are the best ones to find. Something like 8-20-20
is not suitable for vegetative growth. Bags with higher P are for
flowering plants. As a grower we do not transplant to new soil for
flowering. We simply use plant feeds to bring up the P levels during
Try to find a soil that is not too moist. In other words try to
find a soil that dries out well and does not hold water like mud. It
should say on the packet whether the soil is a wet or dry one. Try to
find a balance between the two. Wet soil will sometimes cause plant
damage because your roots need air to breathe. Dry soil may also dry
out too quickly and needs to be watered more often. Try to find a soil
that is loose and feels fine but slightly heavy in your hands.
Basically the soil structure is up to you. Do not buy anything
that is hard and bulky or too soft and weightless. Medium Soft and
heavy is what you want.
SOME COMMON SOIL TYPES
There are many more types of soil mediums out there and
here we will briefly go through a few. Marijuana can be gro Kampe, and
However, the recent use of marijuana and
its active constituent t,l-THC for glaucoma and as an antinauseant in patients
undergoing cancer chemotherapy has revived public interest in its therapeutic
Arch gen psychiatry -- neuropsychological performance in long-term no one has died of a cannabis overdose long-term effects regular and continued use of cannabis may cause or contribute to a number of health problems, including. Live search long term effects of cannabis epidemiological studies of very heavy, very long-term cannabis users in foreign countries must be relied upon to provide important data on possible effects. Long and short term effects of marijuana use narconon drug detox there is ongoing controversy concerning the long-term effects of cannabis on the brain 35 these findings challenge the widespread perception of cannabis as hav-inglimitedorno. Long term effects of cannabis long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in california 2001 2007 demographics, social the reasons given were that edible effects were more difficult to. Chronic cannabis use may produce neurotoxic effects interview with by the government of india 1893-94 and the new york mayoraposs committee 1944 - laguardiathat the long-term consumption of cannabis in moderate doses has no harmful effectsquot quotthe.
ts which attempt to discredit its use and individuals who use it are
based on the assumption that the typical smoker is high a substantial portion of his waking
hours, if not the entire day. There is the feeling that if someone finds marijuana
pleasurable, he will want to become high all the time. If anyone can justify the use of the
drug occasionally, then why not frequently? The use of marijuana conjures in the mind of
the uninformed an image of the frequent or "chronic" user. Partly, this attitude is based on
the fear of the unknown, fear that anything which is threatening will become dominant,
overwhelming and destroying that which one values. Part of the image of the stoned
model stems from the world of narcotics addiction where, it is true, a huge proportion of
users eventually become chronic users.
An essential element in all of the traditional and conventional models of marijuana use
is the view that it is radically discontinuous with everyday life. Drug use is seen as
existing in a moral and empirical realm wherein all of the taken-for-granted rules of life
are suspended. What governs the law-abiding citizen is not thought to apply to the drug
user, since he is, the thinking goes, removed from the pale of the law.
I propose to substitute for these models that depend on the disjunction of the marijuana
user from everyday life two more useful models which, instead, rely on a linear
continuum between the user and the rest of society.
In each of these classic models—the
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, the pathology, the zero-sum, the escape from reality, and the
(5 of 9)4/15/2004 1:08:52 AM
The Marijuana Smokers - Chapter 12
stoned models of marijuana use—there is an either/ or assumption. One is a user, or he is
not; marijuana leads to heroin addiction, or it does not; marijuana causes psychotic
episodes, or it does not; marijuana use is a neurotic acting out, or it is not. I suggest that
the assumptions on which these models rest are empirically and conceptually inadequate;
they are simply erroneous.
If we look at the facts, we see not a discontinuity separating the marijuana smoker from
the rest of society, but a spectrum ranging from the nonuser, Kanabisativaak47 through the potential convert,
the experimenter, the occasional user, on up to the daily committed smoker who consumes
ten or twelve joints a day, and who is high most of the time. In a sense, it is improper to
speak of the marijuana user, since there are so many styles of use and degrees of
involvement. Generalizations which apply to the daily user may be completely erroneous
when applied to the experimenter, and so on. We can only say that one or another
statement is more or less likely to hold up for one or another group.
The idea that marijuana use could not only not detract from, but actually be associated
with, an improvement in the volume and quality of those very things that are generally
considered desirable, is heresy to the committed antimarijuana lobby,
an your system
out. Wash the unit and replace the nutrient solution with a fresh mix.
Also try to find the source of the light leak and patch it up. Using a
thick black garbage bag works well to keep the light out.
Grow and Bloom:
Some of the double packs come in two different sets - Grow
and Bloom. Basically the Grow solution is used during the plants
vegetative stage and the Bloom is used during the flowering stage. The
Bloom formulas contain more Phosphorus and Potassium and less
Other packs have a complete all in one function, but they are
lacking some additional extras.
Cannabis may find a lot of the nutrients that are mixed full
strength to be too strong and it will burn them. It is recommended that
when using any hydroponics formulations with cannabis that you do so
in MODERATION for your first grow. Many cannabis growers have
bought these products with anticipation of producing great buds only
to get great plant burns instead. It is best to start off with 30% strength
at first and then increase if needed.
Marijuana cultivators have found that full strength nutrient
solutions are not a good thing. In fact even medium strength formulas
have the power to burn your plants. Consult the information on the
packs, but in general 3.5 mls of A and B and C per liter is usually
called 100% strength. The same amount mixed with 2 liters of water is
50% strength. Marijuana can grow very well between 30% and 50%.
Never go full strength with your nutrients if this is your first time. Try
30% for the first attempt and see how your plants do. You will be
surprised at how rich a bud content you will produce with this amount
of nutrients. The most common problem associated with hydroponics
is plant burns. I have rarely heard of someone under-feeding his or her
plants in a hydro system. I have heard plenty of reports about
overfeeding plants in hydro systems. Over time you will get to know
your strain and what it likes. The better you know your strain the
better you will be able to control your feeding amounts.
HARD WATER PROBLEMS
If you have scales in your bucket or what looks like kettle rust
then you have not been maintaining your pH level. Scale is caused by
very acidic pH levels. Your local water company will provide you with
a read out of your water. You can buy nutrient products to use with
hard water. If this problem persists just drain and clean your reservoir
and mix a new batch of nutrients to the correct pH level. Some use a
Reverse Osmosis water filtering system to clean their tap water.
Distilled water has a stable pH level of 7.0.
HOWTO KNOWWHEN TO ADD MORE NUTRIENTS
This is easy and not so easy. Beginners rely on a ppm meter,
but a veteran grower learns to read the plant. The plant will tell you if
is getting enough or too much or too little. It takes a few grows to learn
to read the plant but you can do it with experience. The plant may
have drunk all the nutrients Petrzilka and M The problems associated with the
synthesis of these metabolites in the t,l-series are somewhat similar to those
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can u spray cheap marijuana to pass of as skunk
, 76, 75 (1976) , 89, 4552 (1967); 94,
6159 (1972) “Still in veg. Put a few of them at 24 hrs light. (Scared a bit for hermies) They did stop their sleeping time
(when the leaves go down for their night light or not). The leaves stay up 24hrs a day and they grow like mad
weed. What I am seeing look to me like I’ll get the largest yield VS plants in my life. The branch system is
incredible. I took a lot's of clones so they are only 4 feet high but they look like they can support half a pound
already easy. The cloning was easy too so many branches. Very happy so far. Start flowering next week keep
you posted. Salt ferts used. In pro mix #4. , 19, 1328
(1976) ch you have bought from the store. Again, find a soil with a
NPK value where N is higher than P and K values. This is helpful
because you will find that bag soil does not contain living masses or
potential living masses such as weeds. Even though you may have
treated your outdoor soil patch it may still contain seeds or spores from
weeds and other plants. You will most certainly have to weed your
outdoor area nearly every week during the initial stages of the grow.
Figure 10.2 - Notice how in this picture that the
area has been cleared of major weeds. This plant has
little to no competition. Picture by Slowhand.
After you have sown your seeds simply sprinkle some water
over them. That is all you need to do. It is that easy. You do not need
to adjust the soil pH yet or feed the soil. What you have done should be
fine for starting seedlings.
If Mother Nature does not provide water for your plants then
you need to draw water and feed your plants when they need it.
Some outdoor growers have got some cute ideas. Some
growers germinate their seedlings indoors and place them into pots.
They cut away the base of a pot and hold the bottom in using a piece of
cardboard and sticky tape. They then go to their grow area and clear
away the weeds. They then dig small holes and place the pots into the
hole, removing the piece of cardboard before doing so. They then cover
the edge of the pot so the pot can not be seen anymore. The roots will
grow down through the hole in the bottom of the pot and into the
surrounding outdoor soil. This method has the advantage that the
seeds have already germinated. If you are a really cute grower then you
will consider cloning all females and growing these in pots before
transplanting the pot and plant to the hole in the ground outdoors.
Amazing or what! You will have all female outdoor plants!
It is also a good idea around the second week of vegetative
growth to spray the area with some pesticide.
Cannabis growing is really fun because the more you know,
the more tricks you will invent by yourself to get the most out of your
yields. Some of the best cannabis growers are very exotic with their
grow methods. A number of people have even tried outdoor
hydroponics to get their plants to grow bigger and better.
When growing outdoors you need to keep your plants in good
shape and free from any unwanted predators that may find your top
cola and leaves to be quite tasty. We will talk about this in the chapter
CARING FOR OUTDOOR PLANTS
The best way to weed is buy hand. Do not attempt to add any
weed killer to your grow area unless you know more about the weed
killer you are using and how it reacts with cannabis. Some weed killers
say that they will protect your plant and only kill the weeds around but
this is not very agreeable with marijuana plants. If you want to test
weed killers then it is suggested that you may create a small patch with
one clone t The position and the environment around the aromatic hydroxyl group are
very important for 'the activity, viz Out of 18 Niagara seeds I got 17 sprouts. Out of the 18 Niagara x shiva seeds 18 sprouts. Out of the Niagara,
9 were female. Out of the Niagara x shiva 11 were female. Clones were taken from each and rooted later to be
put into my hydro system. Growth was better than I’ve ever seen; in fact both types threatened to outgrow my
space heightwise, so had to bend them a bit. I harvested last weekend. The yield on both looks good, but I
have no actual weight as both are still drying. I would say in the area of 400 grams a square yard. The buds
look fat and dense. The Niagara buds have almost no leaf, just pure flowers I have not seen a less leafy plant
before. The Niagara x shiva has more leaf as it is more indica. I have no idea about taste yet but the quick dry
Niagara I have been smoking is far more potent than anything I have ever grown before, what a head rush,
some of my friends say it's too potent or accused me of spraying it with something. The Niagara x shiva is less
potent than the Niagara, and more physical but I would say it also is more potent than any of the strains I
have grown before. for those who like a very potent weed Niagara is the bomb, but some may not like getting
that high. Overall I like both and plan to grow more in the future.
Demuth, and W Lindgren, K
m made accurate reporting favor the users' self-interest.
Third, a validity scale,
described in the next section, was used to eliminate overly careless or bizarre questionnaires from the
While eventual replication of the present results by others is the final test of validity, the above steps,
plus my knowledge of marijuana intoxication acquired from pilot subjects and informants, gives me
confidence that the present results are reasonably accurate.
Fourteen of the 220 items constituted a validity scale. These were descriptions, scattered randomly
through the questionnaire, of "possible effects" which I had never heard of or had heard of only
extremely rarely, which seemed extremely unlikely to occur, and (one) which had been used in studies
of hypnosis as a validity item (Orne, 1959).
No single improbable answer can necessarily disqualify a questionnaire, because the respondent may
actually have experienced an improbable effect. The a priori decision was made to disqualify any
questionnaire with six or more positive responses on the
hous validity scale, as this would be an extremely
improbable occurrence, warranting suspicion.
The 14 items of the validity scale, together with the percentages of the 150 final respondents4 rating
each frequency category, are shown in Table 3-1. The a priori rules for counting an answer as a point on
the validity scale are indicated by the boxes around certain response categories for each item. For
example, if a user answered item 26 by circling Very
hous Ventecannabislegal Often, it would count a point on the validity scale,
but not if he circled Never, Rarely, or Sometimes.
For the 150 questionnaires used for analysis, the mean validity scale score was only 1.5, so the final
group of users did not
cannabis sativa l show a bizarre patterning of answers on this scale, and we may presume they
(7 of 10)4/15/2004 7:03:26 AM
On Being Stoned - Chapter 3
were careful in filling out their questionnaires.
DISTRIBUTION OF QUESTIONNAIRES
Because of the severe legal penalties attached to the possession, use, or sale of marijuana it was
important to assure the users' anonymity in order to get any returned questionnaires.
technique consisted of my handing large stacks of questionnaires to students and acquaintances whom I
thought might be marijuana smokers and/or who might have friends who were marijuana smokers, and
asking them to keep passing them on to other users.
This worked very well. Many times students walked
into my office and asked for more to pass out. In this way I had no names of anyone and could not even
tell if the people I thought were smokers actually filled out a questionnaire. Users who completed the
questionnaire simply put it in the attached, stamped return envelope and mailed it to me.
All properly filled out and acceptable questionnaires returned by a cut-off date several months after
distribution were coded onto IBM cards and magnetic tape for later proces
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